Research

  • Hyponatremia: Are Salt Tablets Sufficient to Prevent a Salt Deficiency?

    Many athletes as well as others exposed to heat stress consume salt supplements to promote fluid replacement, prevent hyponatremia and dehydration, or ward off heat fatigue. While it is true that supplementing with salt can help reduce sodium depletion from sweat and help maintain adequate fluid levels in the body, supplementing with sodium alone is not enough to satisfy your body’s electrolyte requirements and, in fact, may cause additional problems (e.g., nausea, vomiting, muscle cramps) that significantly interfere with performance. Rather, a normal water and electrolyte balance, including an intake of other electrolytes such as magnesium, potassium, and chloride, is...

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  • Water + Electrolytes: How They Prevent Dehydration

    Intense work or exercise in the heat and serious illness can quickly lead to dehydration. Drinking lots of fluid with electrolytes can prevent it. Here’s what you need to know about water, electrolytes, and why you shouldn’t reach for those calorie-dense, sugary-sweet sports drinks to meet your hydration needs. Dehydration. You may have read or heard that if you’re working or exercising outdoors in hot temperatures or experiencing illness (such as vomiting and/or diarrhea), you need to stay hydrated and that the simplest solution is to drink plenty of water or an electrolyte-fortified beverage such as Gatorade®. Despite all of...

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  • Electrolytes the spark plugs for your bike - by Val John Anderson

    The human body has often been compared to a finely tuned engine. the engine that powers a bicycle is, of course, the human body, and the better that body runs and feels, the more performance and enjoyment one can experience while cycling. In keeping with the analogy of the human body as a finely tuned engine, if food or calories are the fuel in the gas tank, then electrolytes are the spark plugs. Electrolytes are also essential to the proper functioning of fluids in the body, which not only act as the body’s electrical system, but also as the cooling...

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  • Muscle Cramps and Spasms: The Electrolyte Misconnection

    Muscles need sufficient electrolytes--sodium, magnesium, potassium and chloride—in proper balance to function properly. The body manipulates the balance of these minerals inside and outside of muscle cells in order to get the muscles to contract and relax. An imbalance or deficiency of these electrolytes can cause problems with the body’s electrical impulses and lead to muscle cramps and/or muscle spasms. Low levels of any of these minerals can allow the muscle to contract, but prevent it from relaxing. Electrolyte imbalances can occur due to deficiencies in the diet, sweat, urination, diarrhea, medication side effects, from consuming diuretics, and from problems...

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  • Clinical Study which demonstrates that elete can reduce the amount of water needed to hydrate by more than 40%

    This is a significant benefit when considering how heavy water is to carry and was revealed in a peer review published study using forest fire fighters in California. The study was conducted in the summer of 2008 by The University of Montana, in which 8 forest fire fighters were given water with elete added and 8 were given plain water over a period of five days of intense forest fire fighting. The results were astounding; those with elete in their water on average consumed 42.6% less fluid. The following documents comprise a peer review of the study, a summary abstract...

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  • Magnesium, Health, and Disease Prevention

    By Chris D. Meletis, N.D. Magnesium is one of the major mineral nutrients in the human body. Containing approximately 20 to 28 grams of magnesium, 60 percent is found in the bones and teeth, while the remaining 40 percent is found in muscle. Serum levels of magnesium range from 1.5 to 2.1 mEq/L; magnesium is the second-most plentiful positively charged ion found within the cells of the body, signifying its importance in the multitudes of physiologic cellular functions. One of the most important metabolic processes, the synthesis and consumption of ATP is directly linked to magnesium. Magnesium-linked ATP processes activate...

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  • Trace Minerals and pH: It’s Simply a Matter of Health

    By Chris D. Meletis, N.D. Understanding the role of pH in human health and how minerals can help. The human body contains a massive amount of ongoing chemical reactions. The majority of these processes occur within our cells—the smallest building blocks of our bodies. Like a factory, the body produces wastes that can be quite toxic to the body if not disposed of properly. A large percentage of waste produced by our cells finds its way into the bloodstream. These wastes can alter the environment of the blood in a negative way if they are not rapidly metabolized. One of...

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  • Effects of an Electrolyte Additive on Hydration and Drinking Behavior During Wildfire Suppression

    John S. Cuddy, MS; Julie A. Ham, MS; Stephanie G. Harger, MS; Dustin R. Slivka, PhD; Brent C. Ruby, PhD From the Human Performance Laboratory, University of Montana, Missoula, MT. Objective.—The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a water + electrolyte solution versus plain water on changes in drinking behaviors, hydration status, and body temperatures during wildfire suppression. Methods.—Eight participants consumed plain water, and eight participants consumed water plus an electrolyte additive during 15 hours of wildfire suppression. Participants wore a specially outfitted backpack hydration system equipped with a digital flow meter system affixed inline to...

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  • Extracting Minerals from the Great Salt Lake

    Nutritional minerals have been sourced from the Great Salt Lake (GSL) and provided to domestic and international markets since 1969. Endorheic properties of the lake leading to high mineral concentrations, in conjunction with the vastness of the lake, set the GSL apart as the most logical location for nutritional mineral extraction in the world. In spite of the vast abundance of mineral-based resources, only three companies possess water rights with accompanying food-grade mineral extraction claims1; Mineral Resources International, Inc. (MRI), Trace Minerals Research, LLC (TMR), and Salt Lake Minerals Co., LLC (SLM). Significant barriers to entry exist regarding capital requirements,...

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  • Electrolyte Additives for Hydration

    By Paul S. Auerbach, MD, MS, FACEP, FAWM The current issue of the journal Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, published by the Wilderness Medical Society, has a number of very interesting articles of significance to the layperson outdoor medicine enthusiast. "Effects of an Electrolyte Additive on Hydration and Drinking Behavior During Wildfire Suppression," by John S. Cuddy and his colleagues (WEM volume 19, pages 172-180, 2008), describes a study designed to compare the effects of a water plus electrolyte solution versus plain water on changes in drinking behaviors, hydration status, and body temperatures during wildfire suppression activities. In this particular study,...

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  • Dehydration — An Imbalance of Water and Minerals

    100% Preventable — If You Know What To Do! by Chris D. Meletis, N.D. Dehydration results from the loss of water and important electrolytes from the body, including potassium, sodium, chloride, and many other minerals that are often overlooked. The very functioning of essential organs like the brain, kidney, heart and nervous system can’t function without sufficient water or minerals. In third world countries, millions of people die each year from dehydration, particularly susceptible are children and the elderly. But even in North America people suffer unnecessarily and even when people aren’t actually ill from dehydration, it can really affect...

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  • Balancing Act (What Are Electrolytes?)

    By Matthew Tim Anderson, B.I.S. Electrolytes are responsible for maintaining proper fluid balance within cells. Many people hear the word “electrolytes” but have no idea how necessary they are to good health. Electrolytes are minerals capable of transmitting electrical charges within fluids. This function, as well as the reciprocal relationship between water and electrolytes, is extremely important since 50 to 75 percent of the average human body is made up of water and other fluids. Within our bodies, electrolytes are transmitters for the 100 million or so messages per second relayed within the nervous system. Electrolytes are necessary for all...

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  • Electrolytes and Human Health

    Every living being is composed of cells. To sustain life, each cell depends upon a steady, adequate intake of two elements: water and nutrients, especially electrolytes. Electrolytes refer to essential minerals critical to health in a number of ways. Acting independently and cohesively, each these minerals called electrolytes – specifically magnesium, calcium, chloride, sodium and potassium – work with water in maintaining fluid and electrolyte homeostasis, in generating and conducting electrical impulses across cell membranes, in nerve transmission, muscle function and cognition. Our body fluids, i.e., blood, cerebrospinal fluid, perspiration etc., are, in fact, a combination of water and dilute...

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